Eid Ṣalāh and Jumuʿah Ṣalāh on the same day

Eid Ṣalāh and Jumuʿah Ṣalāh on the same day
There is some confusion in relation to performing Jumuʿah Ṣalāh this Friday 1st September 2017 as it is also Eid al-Adha on the same day. There are some messages circulating that it is against the Sunnah to perform Jumuʿah Ṣalāh if Friday conincides with the day of Eid. Please, can you clarify the issue and outline the views of all four schools of thought in this regard.
If Eid occurs on a Friday, there are three mainstream views in relation to the status of Jumuʿah Ṣalāh:
(1) According to the Ḥanafī and Mālikī schools of thought, Jumuʿah Ṣalāh is necessary (subject to the normal conditions) and is not impacted in any way by the Eid Ṣalāh. This is no different to Eid occurring on any other day wherein Dhuhr Ṣalāh would remain necessary. This is also the view of ʿAllāmah Ibn Ḥazm (d. 456/1064) who wrote, “And if Eid falls on a Friday, Eid Ṣalāh will be peformed and then Jumuʿah Ṣalāḥ and this is a must, and there is no sound evidence contrary to this.” He further writes, “Jumuʿah is farḍ and Eid is supererogatory, and the supererogatory act does not override the farḍ.” (According to the dominant Ḥanafī position, Eid Ṣalāh is wājib – a lesser status than farḍ – whilst it is sunnah according to the dominant Mālikī position).
(2) According to the Shāfiʿī school of thought, Jumuʿah Ṣalāh is necessary on the residents of the towns, but not necessary on those who do not reside in the towns (this corresponds to the general Ḥanafī position as there is no Jumuʿah in the villages according to them). The evidence for this is the narration in Muwaṭṭaʾ (613) and Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī (5571) wherein ʿUthmān  delivered a sermon after Eid Ṣalāh and said, “Today you have two Eids together, so whoever from the suburbs would like to wait for Jumuʿah, he should wait, and whoever would like to return, I permit him to do so.”
There are three points worth noting here:
Answer 1

Firstly, this ḥadīth does not contradict the Ḥanafī position. Indeed, Imam Muḥammad ibn al-Ḥasan al-Shaybānī (d. 189/805) affirms in his Muwattāʾ (233) that the reason this permission was granted to the people of the suburbs is because Jumuʿah was not compulsory on them. Thus, in this particular scenario, the Ḥanafī and Shāfiʿī position appears to be the same.Secondly, Jumuʿah Ṣalāh must be established according to the Shāfiʿīs and residents of the town must perform Jumuʿah Ṣalāh.

Thirdly, Imam Khaṭīb Shirbīnī (d. 977/1570) and ʿAllāmah Ramlī (d. 1004/1596) affirm that if the time of Jumuʿah Ṣalāh begins and the people of the suburbs are still in the town, it is necessary on them to perform Jumuʿah Ṣalāh.

(3) According to the Ḥanbalī school of thought, Jumuʿah Ṣalāh is not obligatory on those who perform Eid Ṣalāh. Dhuhr Ṣalāh is sufficient. Their evidence for this is the narrations of Zayd ibn Arqam, ʿAbdullāh ibn al-Zubayr and Abū Hurayrah  which have been transmitted in Sunan Abī Dāwūd (1070) and other ḥadīth books.

However, there are several points worth noting:

Firstly, the dominant Ḥanbalī position is that it is necessary on the Imam to lead Jumuʿah Ṣalāh. Thus, Jumuʿah Ṣalāh must be established for those who may not have performed Eid Ṣalāh and also for those who may prefer to perform Jumuʿah Ṣalāh even though it is not necessary on them.

Secondly, the Ḥanbalī scholars have explicitly stated that it is preferable to perform Jumuʿah Salāh even if it is not necessary on a person.

Thirdly, the Ḥanbalī scholar ʿAllāmah Mardāwī (d. 885/1480) affirms that if a person is at the Jāmiʿ Masjid (or any Masjid in our context) at the time of Jumuʿah Ṣalāh, he must perform Jumuʿah Ṣalāh.

Fourthly, the narration of Abū Hurayrah  in Sunan Abī Dāwūd (1073) and other books clearly states that the Prophet  said, “In this day of yours, two Eids have gathered, so whoever wishes, it (Eid Ṣalāh) will suffice him from Jumuʿah, and we shall be performing Jumuʿah.” This along with the aforementioned ḥadīth of ʿUthmān  clearly affirms that Jumuʿah Ṣalāh was performed in the era of the Prophet  and ʿUthman  in the blessed city of Madīnah. Thus, it is incorrect to suggest that performing Jumuʿah Ṣalāḥ is against the Sunnah. In fact, it is Sunnah. In so far as the practice in the time of ʿAbdullāh ibn al-Zubayr  is concerned, the narrations are contradictory with some narrations suggesting Ḍhuhr Ṣalāh was performed whilst other narrations suggest neither Jumuʿah nor Dhuhr Ṣalāh was performed (which happens to be the isolated view of Imam ʿAtāʾ ibn Abī Rabāḥ, d. 114/732)

Fifthly, our primary response to the evidences presented by the Ḥanbalī School is that the Prophet  granted permission to the people from the suburbs to return to their homes and not to the local residents of the town, as understood from a narration transmitted in Sharḥ Mushkil al-Āthār (3:190), Muṣannaf ʿAbd al-Razzāq (5728) and al-Sunan al-Kubrā (3:444) which clearly mentions, “Whoever wishes to return, may return”, and as implicit in the wording of the narration of Abū Hurayrah , “And we [the locals] shall be performing Jumuʿah.” The aforementioned narration of ʿUthmān  also supports this. Scholars who have explained the permission of the Prophet  in this manner include: Imam Ṭaḥāwī (d. 321/933), Mawlānā ʿAbd al-Ḥayy Laknawī (d. 1304/1886), Mawlānā Rashīd Aḥmad Gangohī (d. 1323/1905), Mawlānā Khalil Aḥmad Sahāranpūrī (d. 1346/1927), Mawlānā Ẓafar Aḥmad ʿUthmānī (d. 1394/1974) and Mawlānā Muḥammad Zakariyyā Kāndhelwī (d. 1402/1982). Ḥāfiẓ Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr (d. 463/1071) has also alluded to this. My respected father Mufti Shabbīr Aḥmad (b. 1376/1957) adds that these narrations demonstrate the compassion of the Prophet  towards his companions and his desire for them to spend their Eid with their families in the suburbs.

In addition to this, the authenticity of the narrations of Zayd ibn Arqam  and Abū Hurayrah  have been questioned as already alluded to in the comments of ʿAllāmah Ibn Ḥazm (d. 456/1064). Although some ḥadīth experts have authenticated the narration of Zayd ibn Arqam , the reality is that its chain is defective and weak due to the presence of a narrator Iyās ibn Abī Ramlah (n.d.) whose credentials cannot be verified. On the other hand, the narration of Abū Hurayrah  is much stronger although it is difficult to suggest it is ṣaḥīḥ (sound). Nevertheless, it is difficult to deny the narration altogether, and it is, for this reason, the narration of Abū Hurayrah  must be understood in the context of providing flexibility for the people of the suburbs as outlined above.

In conclusion, according to the Ḥanafī, Mālikī and Shāfiʿī schools of thought, both Eid Ṣalāh and Jumuʿah Ṣalāh are necessary. However, according to the Shāfiʿīs, there is an exception for residents from out of the town provided they have left the town before the time of Jumuʿah Ṣalāh begins. This is also the position of the Ḥanafīs more generally as there is no Jumuʿah Ṣalāh in the villages according to them. On the other hand, according to the

Ḥanbalīs, Jumuʿah Ṣalāh is not necessary on those who perform Eid Ṣalāh, unless they are present in the Masjid when Jumuʿah Ṣalāh takes place. However, it is necessary for the Imam to establish Jumuʿah Ṣalāḥ and it is preferable for the people who have performed Eid Ṣalāh to perform Jumuʿah Ṣalāh, as affirmed in the ḥadīths. Accordingly, it is necessary according to all four schools of thought to establish Jumuʿah Ṣalāh on Eid day, and this is the practice in the blessed cities of Makkah and Madinah. It is therefore incorrect to suggest this is against the Sunnah.
Finally, it is important to seek guidance from reputable scholars who can advise a person based on their school of thought. One should take extreme care with material on the internet. It is also important to note that the four schools of thought have their evidences and principles and it is important to maintain etiquette and respect.
Allah knows best
Yusuf Shabbir
8 Dhū al-Ḥijjah 1438 / 30 August 2017
Approved by: Mufti Shabbir Ahmad and Mufti Muhammad Tahir http://www.nawadir.org

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