this ḥadīth does not contradict the Ḥanafī position. Indeed, Imam Muḥammad ibn al-Ḥasan al-Shaybānī (d. 189/805) affirms in his Muwattāʾ (233) that the reason this permission was granted to the people of the suburbs is because Jumuʿah was not compulsory on them. Thus, in this particular scenario, the Ḥanafī and Shāfiʿī position appears to be the same.Secondly
, Jumuʿah Ṣalāh must be established according to the Shāfiʿīs and residents of the town must perform Jumuʿah Ṣalāh.
, Imam Khaṭīb Shirbīnī (d. 977/1570) and ʿAllāmah Ramlī (d. 1004/1596) affirm that if the time of Jumuʿah Ṣalāh begins and the people of the suburbs are still in the town, it is necessary on them to perform Jumuʿah Ṣalāh.
(3) According to the Ḥanbalī school of thought, Jumuʿah Ṣalāh is not obligatory on those who perform Eid Ṣalāh. Dhuhr Ṣalāh is sufficient. Their evidence for this is the narrations of Zayd ibn Arqam, ʿAbdullāh ibn al-Zubayr and Abū Hurayrah which have been transmitted in Sunan Abī Dāwūd (1070) and other ḥadīth books.
However, there are several points worth noting:
Firstly, the dominant Ḥanbalī position is that it is necessary on the Imam to lead Jumuʿah Ṣalāh. Thus, Jumuʿah Ṣalāh must be established for those who may not have performed Eid Ṣalāh and also for those who may prefer to perform Jumuʿah Ṣalāh even though it is not necessary on them.
Secondly, the Ḥanbalī scholars have explicitly stated that it is preferable to perform Jumuʿah Salāh even if it is not necessary on a person.
Thirdly, the Ḥanbalī scholar ʿAllāmah Mardāwī (d. 885/1480) affirms that if a person is at the Jāmiʿ Masjid (or any Masjid in our context) at the time of Jumuʿah Ṣalāh, he must perform Jumuʿah Ṣalāh.
Fourthly, the narration of Abū Hurayrah in Sunan Abī Dāwūd (1073) and other books clearly states that the Prophet said, “In this day of yours, two Eids have gathered, so whoever wishes, it (Eid Ṣalāh) will suffice him from Jumuʿah, and we shall be performing Jumuʿah.” This along with the aforementioned ḥadīth of ʿUthmān clearly affirms that Jumuʿah Ṣalāh was performed in the era of the Prophet and ʿUthman in the blessed city of Madīnah. Thus, it is incorrect to suggest that performing Jumuʿah Ṣalāḥ is against the Sunnah. In fact, it is Sunnah. In so far as the practice in the time of ʿAbdullāh ibn al-Zubayr is concerned, the narrations are contradictory with some narrations suggesting Ḍhuhr Ṣalāh was performed whilst other narrations suggest neither Jumuʿah nor Dhuhr Ṣalāh was performed (which happens to be the isolated view of Imam ʿAtāʾ ibn Abī Rabāḥ, d. 114/732)
Fifthly, our primary response to the evidences presented by the Ḥanbalī School is that the Prophet granted permission to the people from the suburbs to return to their homes and not to the local residents of the town, as understood from a narration transmitted in Sharḥ Mushkil al-Āthār (3:190), Muṣannaf ʿAbd al-Razzāq (5728) and al-Sunan al-Kubrā (3:444) which clearly mentions, “Whoever wishes to return, may return”, and as implicit in the wording of the narration of Abū Hurayrah , “And we [the locals] shall be performing Jumuʿah.” The aforementioned narration of ʿUthmān also supports this. Scholars who have explained the permission of the Prophet in this manner include: Imam Ṭaḥāwī (d. 321/933), Mawlānā ʿAbd al-Ḥayy Laknawī (d. 1304/1886), Mawlānā Rashīd Aḥmad Gangohī (d. 1323/1905), Mawlānā Khalil Aḥmad Sahāranpūrī (d. 1346/1927), Mawlānā Ẓafar Aḥmad ʿUthmānī (d. 1394/1974) and Mawlānā Muḥammad Zakariyyā Kāndhelwī (d. 1402/1982). Ḥāfiẓ Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr (d. 463/1071) has also alluded to this. My respected father Mufti Shabbīr Aḥmad (b. 1376/1957) adds that these narrations demonstrate the compassion of the Prophet towards his companions and his desire for them to spend their Eid with their families in the suburbs.
In addition to this, the authenticity of the narrations of Zayd ibn Arqam and Abū Hurayrah have been questioned as already alluded to in the comments of ʿAllāmah Ibn Ḥazm (d. 456/1064). Although some ḥadīth experts have authenticated the narration of Zayd ibn Arqam , the reality is that its chain is defective and weak due to the presence of a narrator Iyās ibn Abī Ramlah (n.d.) whose credentials cannot be verified. On the other hand, the narration of Abū Hurayrah is much stronger although it is difficult to suggest it is ṣaḥīḥ (sound). Nevertheless, it is difficult to deny the narration altogether, and it is, for this reason, the narration of Abū Hurayrah must be understood in the context of providing flexibility for the people of the suburbs as outlined above.
In conclusion, according to the Ḥanafī, Mālikī and Shāfiʿī schools of thought, both Eid Ṣalāh and Jumuʿah Ṣalāh are necessary. However, according to the Shāfiʿīs, there is an exception for residents from out of the town provided they have left the town before the time of Jumuʿah Ṣalāh begins. This is also the position of the Ḥanafīs more generally as there is no Jumuʿah Ṣalāh in the villages according to them. On the other hand, according to the